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A manual on the preparation and presentation of compound feeds for shrimp and fish in aquaculture by Michael B. New

Produced by: Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Title: Feed & Feeding of fish & Shrimp...

Senior Aquaculturist Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme

AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT AND COORDINATION ROGRAMME ADCP/REP/87/26

UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 1987

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and of the United Nations Environment Programme concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

The copyright in this book is vested in the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and in the United Nations Environment Programme. Applications for permission to reproduce this book, in whole or in part, by any method or process, should be addressed, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction desired, to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

© FAO and UNEP 1987

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


Table of Contents


ABSTRACT

1. INTRODUCTION

2. WHY SHOULD I FEED?

2.1 Energy
2.2 Feeding Habits of Fish
2.3 Types of Natural Food
2.4 Fertilization

2.4.1 Background
2.4.2 Benefit of Fertilization

2.5 Effect of Feeding

2.5.1 Background
2.5.2 Benefit

3. WHAT IS FOOD COMPOSED OF?

3.1 Nutrient and Other Components of Feedstuffs

3.1.1 Moisture
3.1.2 Lipids and Fatty Acids
3.1.3 Proteins and Amino Acids
3.1.4 Carbohydrate
3.1.5 Energy
3.1.6 Minerals
3.1.7 Vitamins
3.1.8 Other components of Feeds
3.1.9 Summary of Analytical Information Needed About Feeds

3.2 How to Understand A Feed Composition Table

3.2.1 Moisture Content
3.2.2 Comments on the Use of Specific Compositional Tables

4. WHAT FEEDS CAN I USE ON MY FARM?

4.1 Ingredient Types

4.1.1 Grasses
4.1.2 Legumes
4.1.3 Miscellaneous Fodder Plants
4.1.4 Fruits and Vegetables
4.1.5 Root Crops
4.1.6 Cereals
4.1.7 Oil-Bearing Seeds and Oil Cakes
4.1.8 Feeds of Animal Origin
4.1.9 Miscellaneous Feedstuffs
4.1.10 Additives

4.2 Advantages of Compound Feeds
4.3 Physical Form of Diets
4.4 Choosing the Type of Compound Feed

5. CAN I MAKE MY OWN COMPOUND FEEDS? HOW?

5.1 How do I Choose my Ingredients?
5.2 How do I Decide How Much of Each Ingredient to Use (Formulation)?
5.3 What Machinery Do I Need? And Where Do I Get It?

5.3.1 Feed Types
5.3.2 Types of Machinery or Equipment
5.3.3 Equipment Sizing

5.4 How Do I Make Compound Feeds?

5.4.1 Simple Mixtures
5.4.2 Forming into a Shape
5.4.3 Cooking
5.4.4 Drying
5.4.5 Compound Feed Production

5.5 Economics of Feed Production
5.6 What Special Problems Am I Likely To Have In Making Compound Fe...

6. YOU SAY DIFFERENT ANIMALS NEED DIFFERENT FEEDS AND THAT THE FEEDS HAVE TO VARY ACCORDING TO AVAILABILITY. I UNDERSTAND THAT, AND THE PRINCIPLES OF FORMULATION, BUT CAN YOU GIVE ME SOME EXAMPLES OF COMPOUND FEED COMPOSITION FOR MY ANIMALS, SO I KNOW WHERE TO START?

6.1 Salmon and Trout
6.2 Catfish

6.2.1. Channel Catfish
6.2.2 Other Catfish Species

6.3 Carps

6.3.1 Common Carp
6.3.2 Indian and Chinese Carps

6.4 Tilapias
6.5 Shrimp and Prawns
6.6 Other Species

6.6.1 European Sea Bass, Sea Breams, Grouper and Yellowtail
6.6.2 Other Species

7. HOW SHOULD I STORE MY FEEDS?

7.1 Losses and Deteriorative Changes which Occur During Feed Storage

7.1.1 Physical Loss
7.1.2 Water and Heat Damage
7.1.3 Insect Damage
7.1.4 Fungal Damage
7.1.5 Chemical Changes During Storage

7.2 Storage Procedures

7.2.1 Specific Notes
7.2.2 General Recommendations for Dry Storage - "Do's" and "Don'ts"

8. IF I DECIDE TO FEED MY ANIMALS, HOW MUCH FEED WILL THEY NEED? HOW DO I FEED AND HOW OFTEN?

8.1 Feeding Rate
8.2 Feeding Frequency and Other Factors

8.2.1 Salmon and Trout
8.2.2 Catfish
8.2.3 Tilapia
8.2.4 Carp
8.2.5 Other Fish Species
8.2.6 Shrimp and Prawns

8.3 Biomass Assessment

9. HOW DO I KEEP TRACK OF THE RESULTS OF FEEDING AND HOW CAN I LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE?

9.1 Records of Feed Type
9.2 Records of Feed Use

9.2.1 General Management Records
9.2.2 Feeding Records

9.3 How Do I Use the Records I Have Kept?
9.4 Statistics

10. IF I DECIDE NOT TO MAKE MY OWN, CAN I BUY COMPOUND FEEDS FOR FISH AND PRAWNS? IF SO, WHERE?

11. IF I MAKE FEEDS MYSELF, SHOULD I SELL THEM TO OTHER FARMERS?

12. WILL I HAVE ANY NEW PROBLEMS THROUGH STARTING TO USE FEED ON MY FARM? IF SO, HOW DO I TACKLE THEM?

12.1 Toxic or Poor Quality Feed
12.2 Water Quality
12.3 Effluent
12.4 Disease

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX I: EXAMPLES OF VITAMIN AND MINERAL MIXES

APPENDIX II: EXAMPLES OF FORMULATIONS FOR AQUACULTURE SPECIES

APPENDIX III: NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF FEED MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENT SUPPLIERS

APPENDIX IV: FEED COMPOSITIONAL TABLES

APPENDIX V: INGREDIENT DESCRIPTIONS FOR AQUACULTURE FEEDS

1. GRASSES
2. LEGUMES

2.1 Foliage
2.2 Seeds

3. MISCELLANEOUS FODDER PLANTS
4. FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
5. ROOT CROPS
6. CEREALS
7. OIL-BEARING SEEDS AND OIL CAKES
8. FEEDS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN
9. MISCELLANEOUS FEEDSTUFFS

APPENDIX VI: FISH SILAGE

APPENDIX VII: SOLAR FEED DRIER

APPENDIX VIII: NAMES & ADDRESSES OF MANUFACTURERS AND SUPPLIERS OF COMPOUND FEEDS FOR FISH AND SHRIMP

APPENDIX IX: GLOSSARY OF TERMS

APPENDIX X: CONVERSION TABLES AND COMMON FORMULAE A. CONVERSIONS

APPENDIX XI: BULK DENSITY, PELLETABILITY AND PARTICLE SIZE

APPENDIX XII: FEED BINDERS

APPENDIX XIII: FEEDING TABLES

APPENDIX XIV: FEEDING DEVICES

1. MOBILE DEVICES FOR DRY FEEDS
2. STATIONARY DEVICES FOR DRY FEEDS

2.1 Electrically Powered Feeders
2.2 Demand Feeders
2.3 Water Controlled Feeder

3. FEEDING DEVICES FOR WET OR MOIST FEEDS
4. OTHER DEVICES

APPENDIX XV: TOXIC AND ANTI-METABOLITE SUBSTANCES OCCURRING IN FEEDS

APPENDIX XVI: METHODS OF FEED ANALYSIS

APPENDIX XVII: SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF AQUACULTURED SPECIES REFERRED TO IN THIS MANUAL

APPENDIX XVIII: KEY TO SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF INGREDIENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS MANUAL

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