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Hello, please tell me how you humanely dispatch your tilapia for the table.  When I googled it, some said using ice chokes them, others say shock them (?) others say drive a pin through their skull, or hit them in the head with a hammer.  Wow, I can't picture myself chasing flopping fish with a hammer!  I just want to do the job without causing the fish too much pain.  I also think when something is being killed, it can put out body chemicals (kind of like we have coritsol) because of fear.

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Humm this is what I found out about the AQUI-S

Eugenol oil overdose

Eugenol oil (clove oil) overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows a large amount of a product containing this ingredient.

This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

Poisonous Ingredient

Eugenol

I think the name is pretty clever.

Acquiesce : to accept, agree, or allow something to happen by staying silent or by not arguing

Modern uses[edit]

That does make it look scary, but I feel I need more research.  I went to see what Poison Controls definition of a poison was:

What is a poison?

Anything that in the right amount might be harmful if you taste, breathe or touch it.

Poison control  have alcoholic beverages, vinegar, and many other things on their list that we shouldn't do in excess (I'm going to keep eating pumpkin pie and gingersnap cookies  and other yummy stuff that has clove in it!

On the other hand, I looked up what is touted as the only FDA approved fish anesthetic, to see how it compared to my cookie ingredient in danger:  http://www.resorg.com/Catalog/MSDS/1347A.pdf

8 EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTECTION

Engineering Contols

Local exhaust ventilation, process enclosures, and other forms of engineering controls are the preferred means for controlling exposures.
Facilities using or storing this material must be equipped with an eyewash station and safety shower.

Eye Protection PPE

Avoid eye contact with this material. Wear chemical safety glasses with side shields or chemical safety goggles. Do not wear contact lenses when working with this substance.

Skin Protection PPE

Additional protection may be necessary to prevent skin contact including use of apron, armcovers, face shield, or boots.
Avoid skin contact with this material. Use appropriate chemical protective gloves when handling.
Showering and changing into street clothing after work is recommended.

Respiratory Protection PPE

A NIOSH approved dust respirator should be used as a precautionary measure when airborne contaminants may occur.

Handling

Use only in a well ventilated area. Avoid contact with skin,eyes and on clothing. Empty containers may contain material residue. Do not reuse. Do not eat, drink or smoke in areas of use or storage.
Persons with known allergies to this or similar material(s) should not handle this product.
Minimize dust generation during handling and contact. 

 

 I looked up Eugenol on Wiki:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugenol  and found this

Eugenol is used in perfumeries, flavorings, essential oils and in medicine as a local antiseptic and anesthetic.[6]

It is a key ingredient in Indonesian kretek (clove) cigarettes.

It was used in the production of isoeugenol for the manufacture of vanillin, though most vanillin is now produced from phenol or from lignin.

Eugenol can be combined with zinc oxide to form a material - known as zinc oxide eugenol - which has restorative and prosthodontic applications indentistry.[7]

Eugenol derivatives or methoxyphenol derivatives in wider classification are used in perfumery and flavoring.

They are used in formulating insect attractants and UV absorbers, analgesicsbiocides, and antiseptics.

It can be used to reduce the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus sakei in food.[8]

They are also used in manufacturing stabilizers and antioxidants for plastics and rubbers. Attempts have been made to develop eugenol derivatives for intravenous injection, such as propanidid and G.29.505. The latter produced unacceptable side effects around the site of injection in many patients.[9]

It is one of many compounds that is attractive to males of various species of orchid bees, which apparently gather the chemical to synthesize pheromones; it is commonly used as bait to attract and collect these bees for study.[10] It also attracts female cucumber beetles.[11]

Clove oil is growing in popularity as an anaesthetic for use on aquarium fish as well as on wild fish when sampled for research and management purposes[12][13] where, readily available over-the-counter from pharmacies, it may be a humane method to euthanise sick and diseased fish either by direct over-dose or to induce sleep before an overdose of ethanol.[14]

It is also used in some mousetraps.[15]

Eugenol kills certain human colon cancer cell lines in vitro.[16]



wes said:

Humm this is what I found out about the AQUI-S

Eugenol oil overdose

Eugenol oil (clove oil) overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows a large amount of a product containing this ingredient.

This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

Poisonous Ingredient

Eugenol



Sunny Oettel said:

Modern uses[edit]

That does make it look scary, but I feel I need more research.  I went to see what Poison Controls definition of a poison was:

What is a poison?

Anything that in the right amount might be harmful if you taste, breathe or touch it.

Poison control  have alcoholic beverages, vinegar, and many other things on their list that we shouldn't do in excess (I'm going to keep eating pumpkin pie and gingersnap cookies  and other yummy stuff that has clove in it!

On the other hand, I looked up what is touted as the only FDA approved fish anesthetic, to see how it compared to my cookie ingredient in danger:  http://www.resorg.com/Catalog/MSDS/1347A.pdf

8 EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTECTION

Engineering Contols

Local exhaust ventilation, process enclosures, and other forms of engineering controls are the preferred means for controlling exposures.
Facilities using or storing this material must be equipped with an eyewash station and safety shower.

Eye Protection PPE

Avoid eye contact with this material. Wear chemical safety glasses with side shields or chemical safety goggles. Do not wear contact lenses when working with this substance.

Skin Protection PPE

Additional protection may be necessary to prevent skin contact including use of apron, armcovers, face shield, or boots.
Avoid skin contact with this material. Use appropriate chemical protective gloves when handling.
Showering and changing into street clothing after work is recommended.

Respiratory Protection PPE

A NIOSH approved dust respirator should be used as a precautionary measure when airborne contaminants may occur.

Handling

Use only in a well ventilated area. Avoid contact with skin,eyes and on clothing. Empty containers may contain material residue. Do not reuse. Do not eat, drink or smoke in areas of use or storage.
Persons with known allergies to this or similar material(s) should not handle this product.
Minimize dust generation during handling and contact. 

 

 I looked up Eugenol on Wiki:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugenol  and found this

Eugenol is used in perfumeries, flavorings, essential oils and in medicine as a local antiseptic and anesthetic.[6]

It is a key ingredient in Indonesian kretek (clove) cigarettes.

It was used in the production of isoeugenol for the manufacture of vanillin, though most vanillin is now produced from phenol or from lignin.

Eugenol can be combined with zinc oxide to form a material - known as zinc oxide eugenol - which has restorative and prosthodontic applications indentistry.[7]

Eugenol derivatives or methoxyphenol derivatives in wider classification are used in perfumery and flavoring.

They are used in formulating insect attractants and UV absorbers, analgesicsbiocides, and antiseptics.

It can be used to reduce the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus sakei in food.[8]

They are also used in manufacturing stabilizers and antioxidants for plastics and rubbers. Attempts have been made to develop eugenol derivatives for intravenous injection, such as propanidid and G.29.505. The latter produced unacceptable side effects around the site of injection in many patients.[9]

It is one of many compounds that is attractive to males of various species of orchid bees, which apparently gather the chemical to synthesize pheromones; it is commonly used as bait to attract and collect these bees for study.[10] It also attracts female cucumber beetles.[11]

Clove oil is growing in popularity as an anaesthetic for use on aquarium fish as well as on wild fish when sampled for research and management purposes[12][13] where, readily available over-the-counter from pharmacies, it may be a humane method to euthanise sick and diseased fish either by direct over-dose or to induce sleep before an overdose of ethanol.[14]

It is also used in some mousetraps.[15]

Eugenol kills certain human colon cancer cell lines in vitro.[16]



wes said:

Humm this is what I found out about the AQUI-S

Eugenol oil overdose

Eugenol oil (clove oil) overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows a large amount of a product containing this ingredient.

This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

Poisonous Ingredient

Eugenol

Clove Oil Has a very strong taste and odor so wouldn't it would affect the taste of tilapia.  Clove Oil works very well for putting goldfish and koi to sleep. I have used Clove Oil to sedate some of my goldfish before and it worked.  Koi and Goldfish don't die in cold water the way tilapia do.  i not think Koi and goldfish should not be put in ice water.

I believe that ice water is the best way to dispatch tilapia.  Thank you drumurphy for the trick about using salt to lower the temp of the water.  

Bob Thank you for correcting me!!!  Your 100% right that an ice bath is not an appropriate method.

Clove oil may be Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) for human consumption, and even for fish feed, but if you had read the linked articles - you would see that it is Not Generally Regarded as Safe for fish anesthesia. I could re-type the whole article, or you could go read it.

Or we could just agree that none of us will allow ourselves to be exposed to 10,000 times the normal dosage and go on with our lives.

Seriously, if you trust the FDA/USDA then you're probably gonna die of malnutrition; because according to them NOTHING is safe to eat.  LOL

HI All,

I am the Technical and Marketing Manager for AQUI-S New Zealand Ltd. I was invited to this blog by Sunny to provide some comments around AQUI-S and harvest methods for Tilapia. Please feel free to pick my brain around our anaesthetic AQUI-S and also any other fish physiology related topics.

I am mindful not to make this too long but I will attempt to give a bit of information on fish physiology and AQUI-S.

Stress
Stress in fish is an habitual, undesirable aspect of production. Stress results from biotic and/or abiotic challenges that act in changing or modifying the animal's natural or homeostatic state. Common fish stressors involve alterations in the fish's immediate environment such as Chemical changes (contaminants, low oxygen and acidification) Physical changes (handling, capture, confinement and transport) and Perceived changes (startling or predators)

The Physiological Response to Stress in Fish
Generally, stress in fish is a non-specific response classified as three distinct responses:

    Primary response: The primary response is characterised by the activation and secretion of the hormones, corticosteroids (cortisol) and catecholamines, into the blood.

    Secondary response: The release of these hormones trigger the secondary response which involves the release of glucose into the blood for energy, followed by increases in heart rate, gill blood flow and metabolic rate and changes to blood and muscle lactate (pH).

    Tertiary response: Changes in blood physiology ultimately cascade into a whole body change or the tertiary stress responses. Changes associated with the tertiary stress response include reduced growth rate, decreased disease resistance, altered behavior and reduced survivability.

Harvest
Harvesting should be a process where fish are treated with the greatest care to minimize stress prior to slaughter. Low stress harvesting of fish, also known as RESTED HARVEST, is widely known to significantly improve product quality.  Whilst spiking and clubbing are good methods to kill fish, there is often high stress associated with capture, air exposure and the spiking/clubbing itself.

Rested harvest?
Most fish demonstrate a maximal escape response when they are threatened in any way. The disturbance may come from a net being introduced into the water, a noise or any other unnatural activities such as removal from the water. The escape response results in increased energy usage and the production of lactic acid in the muscle lowering muscle pH. The overall result is an exhausted fish with acidic flesh.

AQUI-S® - Rested Harvest
The food grade attributes of AQUI-S® make it an ideal sedative for achieving a rested harvest. The critical stages where fish encounter stress during harvest (CROWD, AIR and SLAUGHTER) can be removed or mitigated through the proper use of AQUI-S®, thus culminating in improved flesh quality.

For more information please don’t hesitate to contact me directly through our website Contact Us page or visit www.aqui-s.com.

Me again. One final statement on Clove Oil:

Clove oil has long been used as an anaesthetic in human dentistry and as a food flavoring. Clove oil is actually a mixture of different compounds. The three major ingredients are eugenol, caryophyllene and acetyl eugenol. Clove oil composition varies considerably depending on the region the plant is sourced from, the method of extracting the oil, the maturity of the plant and the part of the plant that the oil has been extracted from (leaf, stem or bud). This causes significant problems with different dose responses in animals seemingly exposed to the same concentration. Most commercially available clove oil contains between 80% and 90% eugenol, 5% and 15% caryophyllene, and 5% and 10% acetyl eugenol. The remaining 5% to 10% is made up of minor constituents including isoeugenol and methyleugenol and other unknown compounds. The National Toxicity Program (NTP) in the U.S. determined that methyleugenol is carcinogenic to rodents. The contamination of clove oil with methyleugenol and the unknown compounds raises the level of concern for human safety and as such clove oil will never be registered as an aquatic anaesthetic.

Thank you, Nic, for taking part of your day to help us with this problem of humane dispatching of our fish.  Your Aqui-s--does it contain the methyleugenol (ME)?   Do you believe it is dangerous? My research shows ME as being c common part of our diet and daily life, including some benefits.  I looked up some OTHER chemicals used in the US for similar purposes, and it seems to me that their ingredients are MUCH more toxic.  I want to try Aqui-S. Is it available for some of small-time aquaponics people that are on our first harvest or so?

I went to your website and really learned a lot about what stress and fear can do to the meat of an animal.  I am grateful for your input here to help us get more educated on our options.



Nic Paton said:

Me again. One final statement on Clove Oil:

Clove oil has long been used as an anaesthetic in human dentistry and as a food flavoring. Clove oil is actually a mixture of different compounds. The three major ingredients are eugenol, caryophyllene and acetyl eugenol. Clove oil composition varies considerably depending on the region the plant is sourced from, the method of extracting the oil, the maturity of the plant and the part of the plant that the oil has been extracted from (leaf, stem or bud). This causes significant problems with different dose responses in animals seemingly exposed to the same concentration. Most commercially available clove oil contains between 80% and 90% eugenol, 5% and 15% caryophyllene, and 5% and 10% acetyl eugenol. The remaining 5% to 10% is made up of minor constituents including isoeugenol and methyleugenol and other unknown compounds. The National Toxicity Program (NTP) in the U.S. determined that methyleugenol is carcinogenic to rodents. The contamination of clove oil with methyleugenol and the unknown compounds raises the level of concern for human safety and as such clove oil will never be registered as an aquatic anaesthetic.

Hi Sunny.  AQUI-S has no Methyleugenol.  AQUI-S is a very controlled GMP produced product containing 50% Isoeugenol and 50% excipients to allow the Isoeugenol oil to disperse in water and be available for gill perfusion.  There are no other compounds present in AQUI-S.  I unfortunately do not know enough about Methyleugenol to comment any further on its toxicity or carcinogenicity. 

AQUI-S is available to everyone.  In some regions there are some rules around purchase but we can help with that should after we get an inquiry.  We have distributors located in various countries (See our distributor page HERE) and where no distributors are appointed we can sell direct from New Zealand. 

The beauty of AQUI-S is that only small concentrations are needed to anesthetize fish.  Typically for handling you will need between 20 - 30 mg/L, which is equivalent to 20 - 30 ml per 1,000 L of water.

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